Error handling refers to the anticipation, detection, and resolution of
programming, application, and communications errors. Specialized programs,
called error handlers, are available for some applications. The best programs of
this type forestall errors if possible, recover from them when they occur
without terminating the application, or (if all else fails) gracefully terminate
an affected application and save the error information to a log file.
In programming, a development error is one that can be prevented. Such an
error can occur in syntax or logic. Syntax errors, which are typographical
mistakes or improper use of special characters, are handled by rigorous
proofreading. Logic errors, also called bugs, occur when executed code does not
produce the expected or desired result. Logic errors are best handled by
meticulous program debugging. This can be an ongoing process that involves, in
addition to the traditional debugging routine, beta testing prior to official
release and customer feedback after official release.
A run-time error takes place during the execution of a program, and usually
happens because of adverse system parameters or invalid input data. An example
is the lack of sufficient memory to run an application or a memory conflict with
another program. On the Internet, run-time errors can result from electrical
noise, various forms of malware or an exceptionally heavy demand on a server.
Run-time errors can be resolved, or their impact minimized, by the use of error
handler programs, by vigilance on the part of network and server administrators,
and by reasonable security countermeasures on the part of Internet users.